The 2020 air strike on Baghdad International Airport, in which Iranian General Qasem Soleimani was assassinated by the United States, revealed the complicated nature of relations between Saudi Arabia and Turkey, with the two countries secretly authorizing the air strike, in the hope of eliminating a serious Iranian threat to the two countries` ambitions in the Middle East. [37] [39] The treaty included 143 articles containing important sections, including:[9] After the election of Joe Biden, who criticized the two countries` human rights record, Saudi Arabia and Turkey attempted to reconcile in November 2020. [52] [53] Foreign Minister Fayçal bin Farhan called relations “good and friendly” and rejected allegations that Saudi Arabia was committed to informally boycotting Turkish goods. [54] Saudi Arabia is also trying to end the blockade on Qatar, Turkey`s ally. [55] Nevertheless, Saudi Arabia`s alliance with Egypt and the United Arab Emirates, the two Arab states openly hostile to Turkey, has made it questionable, with the UAE having considerable influence on Saudi affairs and Saudi Arabia`s support for Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. [52] [56] The growing anti-Turkish alliance between Saudi Arabia and Israel, which has maintained increasingly tense relations with Turkey since 2010, was also ineffective with Israel, the day before the Saudi attempt to reconcile with Turkey, which allowed Saudi charities in East Jerusalem to be an act of entration of Turkish influence and organizations active in that country. [57] The relationship between Turkey and Saudi Arabia is also hampered by clashes between the Islamic school of thought. Turkey has traditionally renounced funding for Islamic schools, but since 2010 Turkey has begun funding more and more Islamic schools with moderate Sunni thinking against Wahhabi hard-line doctrines, leading to the creation in Saudi Arabia of Saudi Arabia`s attempt to eradicate Saudi-funded Madrasah. [67] Although the Turkish attempt is also trying to limit Iran`s influence, Turkey does not like the influence of Saudi Arabia in a similar way.

With the outbreak of the Iranian revolution in 1979 and the Iran-Iraq war that followed, both Turkey and Saudi Arabia were the main backers of Saddam Hussein`s Iraq, although Turkey implicitly supported Iraq and was skeptical of the Islamic clergy who ruled Iran, despite maintaining a neutral face, while Saudi Arabia openly supported Iraq with lethal weapons and financial means. [10] [12] In August 2020, Mossad chief Yossi Cohen, in his statement to Saudi, Egyptian and Emirati counterparts, had openly called Turkey a new threat to peace in the region and had further highlighted a number of allies that Turkey could support, such as Azerbaijan and Qatar, the first to have strong relations with Israel since the 1990s. [47] Saudi Arabia, Israel, Egypt and the United Arab Emirates see Turkish expansionism as a new threat to the Middle East since 2018, with the Saudi news agency SPA announcing on Friday that King Erdogan was calling to coordinate efforts at the G20 summit. [48] The Saudi state-running news agency SPA reported late on Friday that King Erdogan had called to coordinate efforts at the G20 summit. November 21-22. In 1991, with the outbreak of the Gulf War, Turkey and Saudi Arabia supported the United States against Iraq, although Turkey did not participate in the coalition, Ankara opened its airspace to support the coalition, while Saudi Arabia was part of the coalition. [13] [14] Even in the 1990s, Turkey and Saudi Arabia had sympathies for the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria against Russia, but did not recognize them. [15] [16] The international community has begun to pay more attention to Turkey`s efforts, particularly with regard to the expiry of the Treaty of Lausanne.